การฆ่าเชื้อในน้ำดื่มสัตว์ปีก

DISINFECTION OF POULTRY DRINKING WATER AND PROCESSING WATER

การฆ่าเชื้อในน้ำดื่มสัตว์ปีก

การฆ่าเชื้อด้วยคลอรีนถูกใช้ในโรงงานแปรรูปสัตว์ปีกเป็นเวลายาวนาน ซึ่งได้รับการพิสูจน์แล้วว่าน้ำที่ใช้ในการผลิตคลอรีนอย่างเหมาะสม ความสะอาดและคุณภาพที่ได้จากการฆ่าเชื้อด้วยคลอรีน เช่น น้ำล้างอุปกรณ์ ช่วยเพิ่มอายุการเก็บรักษาผลิตภัณฑ์อย่างมาก ซึ่งส่งผลให้ความสามารถในการขายและผลกำไรของผลิตภัณฑ์เพิ่มขึ้น แบคทีเรียในโรงเรือนสัตว์ปีก สามารถเติบโตอย่างรวดเร็ว แม้ว่าแหล่งน้ำจะปราศจากแบคทีเรียก็ตาม โรคต่างๆ เช่น อหิวาตกโรคในไก่ มักแพร่จากสัตว์ปีกหนึ่งไปอีกตัวหนึ่งผ่านทางน้ำดื่ม นอกจากนี้ สัตว์ปีกที่ดื่มน้ำที่ปนเปื้อนด้วยอาหาร และมูลยังมีสภาพแวดล้อมที่ดีเยี่ยมสำหรับการเจริญเติบโตของ E coli ซึ่งเป็นแบคทีเรียโคลิฟอร์มซึ่งบ่งชี้ว่ามีอุจจาระปนเปื้อนอยู่

DISINFECTION OF POUL TRY DRINKING WATER

GENERAL
Chlorine disinfection has been used in poultry processing plants for many years. It’s a proven fact that properly chlorinated processing water including carcass wash water, chilling water, assembly line spray water and equipment washdown water provides a tremendous increase in product shelf life which translates to increased product salability and profitability. SEE THE SECTION TITLED “DISINFECTION OF POULTRY PRO CESSING WATERS” IN THIS BULLETIN.
The one thing disinfection in the poultry processing plant can’t do, is assure that only birds of the highest quality and health are delivered to the processing plant. It’s up to the farms that grow the poultry to provide top quality product to the processing plant. Once again, “chlorine to the rescue.” Proper disinfection of the poultry drinking water supply will control the diseases usually found in poultry houses and will result in increased body weight and better egg production which again results in heightened profits.

In a poultry house application, bacteria can grow rapidly in poultry house drinkers, even if the source water is bacteria free. Diseases such as fowl cholera often pass from bird to bird via the drinking water. Also, drinkers that are contaminated with feed and manure provide an excellent environment for the growth of E coli, a coliform bacteria which indicates the presence of fecal contamination. Maintaining an adequate level of chlorine in the drinkers can greatly reduce the numbers of bacteria present.

The chlorine applied should be in the form of Free Available Chlorine since HOCL (Hypochlorous Acid) is the most effective form of chlorine at destroying bacteria. The chlorine application should also be continuous as the water in the drinkers is constantly being Trcalet.l Waler To Bird Houses/ contaminated with feed, manure, mucus, and saliva from the birds. A free chlorine residual level should exist in the drinker farthest from the source of chlorine to assure that disinfection is adequate. Flushing the water lines thoroughly between flocks and regular cleaning of the drinkers and drinking water apparatuses will minimize the amount of chlorine required while maximizing its effectiveness. The chlorination system is turned off whenever the birds are being medicated.

This bulletin discusses and depicts two different REGAL Gas Feed Systems that can be used in this application. The first system (SEE “A” BELOW) is a manual system that can be used when chlorine injection is into a water line flowing at a fixed (non-varying) rate. The second system (SEE “B” BELOW) is an automatic system that can be used to control the chlorine residual when chlorinating into a non-metered varying water flow rate with possible varying demand as well. 

NOTE:
The drawings in this bulletin are intended as a guide only. They are not intended lo be all inclusive as each application and installation is unique. A proper inslallalion will include additional ilems not shown on these drawings such as: supply and back pressure gauges, water line strainers, shut-off and isolation valves and unions lo enable servicing of system comp0nents.

A. MANUAL CHLORINATION SYSTEM (See Drawing #1)

A REGAL single cylinder gas chlorinator (or an optional REGAL automatic switchover gas chlorinator) installed as shown on the attached drawing, will provide a safe and low maintenance system. Since the chlorination system booster pump is electrically interlocked with the well pump motor starter circuit, system operation is essentially automatic. Once the required chlorine gas feed rate (chlorine dosage) has been determined and manually set, the system automatically turns itself on and off as required. The direct cylinder or ton container mounting of the chlorinator systems vacuum regulator(s) provides maximum safety since all dangerous gas lines under pressure are eliminated.

A REGAL cylinder scale is used to provide a record of chlorine used on a daily basis as well as the amount of chlorine remaining. When a REGAL automatic switchover gas system is used, the operator is assured that as long as he changes cylinders or containers as soon as they are empty, the system will never be without chlorine. 

B. AUTOMATIC CHLORINATION SYSTEM (See Drawing #21)

Sometimes, a manually operated chlorination system, or even an automatic flow proportional chlorination system cannot be used successfully. This is particularly true on small water or waste water systems that have low (non-metered) varying water flows as well as varying chlorine demand and/ or high residual requirements. These projects generally require a system capable of stable control based on the required residual only.

This system shown on Drawing #2 of this bulletin uses a conventional residual (only} control system and a separate mixing tank which allows the system to compensate for widely varying water flows and varying demand as well. This system is just one method that can be used to provide relatively stable residuals and will work well when the following system conditions exist. 

1. The water flow rate to be treated is not metered and varies over a wide range.
2. The chlorine demand of the water varies over a wide range, but the rate of change is less than plus or minus 10% per minute.
3. The chlorine feed rate requirements are low.
4. The system has frequent and prolonged very low or zero water flow conditions.
5. The average water flow rate to be treated is 100 GPM or less.

The best results will occur when the mixing tank volume provides a minimum holding time of one minute at average flow. For example, if the average water flow rate is 50 GPM, tank volume should be at least 50 gallons. The chlorine solution injection point into the mixing tank should be prior to the point at which the pump suction water is taken from the tank by a distance equal to 1/3 the tank height. This should provide for a total system “lag” time (the time it takes for a gas feed rate change to be detected by the analyzer) of thirty seconds or less.

The booster/recirculation pump rating in GPM should not be less than 20% of the tank volume. This will provide rigorous mixing of the chlorine solution with the water being treated. Because the booster pump never shuts off, it must be suitable for continuous service. The chlorine residual analyzer is an extremely important component of this system because it provides the control signal to the gas feed system. Therefore it is imperative that the analyzer be properly maintained and correctly calibrated at all times. All materials must be capable of withstanding the maximum chlorine concentration of the system.

DISINFECTION OF POUL TRY PROCESSING WATERS

GENERAL 

Properly disinfected poultry drinking water helps to assure a high quality product is delivered to the processing plant. After arrival at the processing plant, and during the various processing procedures, it’s important to make sure outside microbial contamination of the poultry does not occur. For instance, properly disinfected spray water can be utilized to wash off fecal and other physical contaminants while reducing bacterial levels on the carcasses.

The processing of the poultry and the proper disinfection of the processing waters is extremely involved. The poultry passes through many different pieces of equipment and goes through numerous operations. Along with proper disinfection of the poultry, the disinfection process must also keep the equipment (which is an ideal breeding ground for bacteria) and the personnel involved, properly sanitized at all times. This will assure the longest possible shelf life of the product which translates to increased product salability and profitability. 

PROCESSING OPERATIONS

Processing procedures may differ slightly from one processing plant to another, however the basic steps involved generally include the following operations. Each step or operation will use properly chlorinated flowing water and/or spray water.

1. The birds (product) are slaughtered and hung on a conveyor line where they pass through an area or tunnel which provides sufficient time to
completely drain the blood.

2. The product next enters a series of tanks containing recirculating hot (scald) water after which they pass through specialized machinery which removes most of the feathers. Additional removal of feathers and hair may be done by hand as well.

3. The product next goes to singeing machinery which removes the remainder of feathers and hair.

4. The carcasses are next thoroughly washed and disinfected on the outside to remove all possible contaminants, then passed into an eviscerating area to remove unwanted internal organs. Some internal organs such as the liver and gizzard are saved and receive additional processing which again will use properly chlorinated water.

5. The carcasses are next inspected for disease. Product that is free of disease is again thoroughly disinfected both inside and out with properly chlorinated water.

6. The final step involves passing the product through “chill tanks” which lowers the temperature of the product to approximately 35°F. After the chill tanks, the product is hung to dry, then packed in ice for shipment.

CHLORINATION SYSTEM (See Drawing 13)
A REGAL single cylinder gas chlorinator shown on drawing #3 (or an optional REGAL automatic switchover gas chlorinator) with multiple feed points is generally used in processing plant disinfection.

The chlorine source can be either 150 lb. cylinders or, one ton containers. Chlorine gas feed rates of the individual feed points is generally set manually by the operator to provide the residual required at each respective point of application. Direct cylinder or ton container mounting of the chlorinator systems vacuum regulator(s) provides maximum safety since all dangerous gas lines under pressure are eliminated. To make sure the system is even safer, the individual ejector assemblies should be placed directly at the point of application. This eliminates ru!.potentially dangerous chlorine solution lines as well, since all chlorine gas is now transported in a safe, all vacuum state.

Automatic (Flow Proportional, Residual Control, etc.) REGAL gas feed systems and REGAL accessories such as cylinder scales, chlorine gas detectors, vacuum monitors, etc. are also available and can be used in poultry applications when needed. Contact Chlorinators Incorporated for information on these systems and accessories.

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